[IMAGE]


Conserving Biodiversity
on Military Lands

A Handbook for
Natural Resources
Managers


[IMAGE]
Michele Leslie
The Nature Conservancy

Gary K. Meffe
University of Georgia's Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

Jeffrey L. Hardesty
The Nature Conservancy

Diane L. Adams
The Nature Conservancy
1996

Sponsored by The Department of Defense Biodiversity Initiative
A Partnership for Conservation

Leslie, M. G.K. Meffe, J.L. Hardesty, and D.L. Adams. 1996. Conserving Biodiversity on
Military Lands: A Handbook for Natural Resources Managers.
. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.

Please contact the following for additional copies of this handbook:

Office of Deputy Under Secretary of Defense
(Environmental Security) (Conservation)
3400 Defense Pentagon
Washington, DC 20301-3400

or

HQ USAF/CEVP
Directorate of Environment
Office of The Air Force Pentagon
Washington, DC 20330-1260

Cover Design by Tamara Savage
Typography and Graphics by Science Applications
International Corporation, McLean, VA.



Table of Contents

Foreword

Acknowledgments

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
1.2 BIODIVERSITY ON MILITARY LANDS
1.3 MILITARY NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS: AN

EVOLUTION TOWARD ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT
1.3.1 World War II and the Growth of Natural Resources Management
1.3.2 The 1960s: Growing Public Interest in Natural Resources
1.3.3 The 1970s and 1980s: A Mandate for Environmental Protection
1.3.4 The Emergence of Ecosystem Management in the 1990s
1.4 HOW TO USE THIS HANDBOOK

2. AN OVERVIEW OF CONSERVATION AND THE ECOSYSTEM
APPROACH
2.1 MODERN APPROACHES TO CONSERVATION
2.2 A CONSERVATION ETHIC
2.3 AN OVERVIEW OF THE ECOSYSTEM APPROACH
2.3.1 What is an Ecosystem Approach
2.3.2 Integrating Across Ecological, Socio-economic, and Institutional
Perspectives
2.3.3 Key Elements of an Ecosystem Approach
2.3.4 Moving Toward an Ecosystem Approach: Changes in Perspective
2.3.5 Adaptive Management: Dealing With Uncertainty and Complexity in
Nature
Four Causes of Uncertainty in Natural Systems
Other Types of Uncertainty Associated With Management
2.3.6 Managing Within the Bounds of Natural Variation

3. PUTTING THEORY INTO PRACTICE: A MODEL PROCESS AND

FIRST STEPS
3.1 OVERVIEW OF THE MODEL PROCESS
3.1.1 Underlying Assumptions
3.1.2 Key Steps in the Model Process
3.2 DEVELOPING AN INITIAL CONCEPT AND GAINING MANAGEMENT
APPROVAL
3.2.1 Developing an Initial Concept
3.2.2 Obtaining Management Approval and Support
3.3 IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS AND DEVELOPING A PROCESS FOR
WORKING TOGETHER
3.3.1 Establishing a Core Team
3.3.2 Identifying Key Stakeholders
3.3.3 Partnering and Selecting Contractors
3.3.4 Determining When Public Outreach Makes Sense
3.4 PUTTING CONSERVATION IN CONTEXT: ECOLOGICAL, MILITARY
MISSION, INSTITUTIONAL, AND SOCIOECONOMIC
PERSPECTIVES
3.4.1 Understanding the Military Mission Context
3.4.2 Understanding the Ecological Context
3.4.3 Understanding the Socioeconomic Context
3.4.4 Understanding the Institutional Context
3.5 DEVELOPING A MISSION STATEMENT
3.6 FUNDING AND STAFF RESOURCES
3.6.1 Anticipated Costs and Staff Commitment
3.6.2 Sources of Funding and Budgeting Processes
Environmental Conservation Compliance Program
Commodity Programs
Legacy Resource Management Program
3.6.3 Contracting, Obligating, and Transferring Funds
3.7 MAINTAINING INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT

4. SETTING CONSERVATION PRIORITIES AND DEVELOPING A

VISION OF ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY
4.1 FOCUSING ON HIGH-PRIORITY SPECIES AND NATIVE
COMMUNITIES
4.1.1 Determining the Presence of Priority Species and Communities at a
Particular Installation
4.1.2 Trends in Prioritization Approaches
4.2 FROM SPECIES TO ECOSYSTEMS: USING CONCEPTUAL MODELS TO
UNDERSTAND ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS
4.2.1 What Do We Mean by "Model"?
4.2.2 Why Model?
4.2.3 Examples of Models Developed by DoD Managers
4.2.4 A Suggested Process for Developing Models
4.3 ASSESSING THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES
4.3.1 Types of Threats
4.3.2 How to Assess Threats
4.3.3 Situational Analysis: Revisiting Military, Social and Institutional Contexts
4.4 DETERMINING DESIRED FUTURES
4.4.1 The Central Concept of Ecosystem Integrity
4.4.2 Defining Desired Future Ecosystem Conditions
4.4.3 Reference Conditions, Range of Variability, and Thresholds
4.5 CLARIFYING GOALS AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS
4.5.1 What are Goals?
4.5.2 The Process of Setting Goals
4.5.3 Resolving Conflicts

5. CONSERVATION OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES: ACTION AND

EXPERIMENTATION
5.1 DEVELOPING OBJECTIVES
5.1.1 What is A Sound Objective?
5.1.2 Developing An Initial Set of Objectives
5.1.3 Common Difficulties in Setting Objectives
5.2 CONSIDERING ALTERNATIVE CONSERVATION STRATEGIES
5.2.1 Land Use Controls
5.2.2 Management and Restoration
Simulating Natural Disturbance Regimes
Restoring Hydrologic Regimes
Timber Harvesting and Reforestation
Management of Grazing Lands
Eliminating Exotic Species
Translocating Species

5.2.3 Special Measures: Ex-Situ Conservation and Other Strategies
Seed Saving
Captive Breeding
Specimen Banking
5.3 TAKING ACTION
5.4 MONITORING
5.4.1 Why Monitor?
5.4.2 Types of Monitoring
5.4.3 Monitoring Priorities and Objectives
Establishing Monitoring Priorities
Developing Monitoring Objectives
Selected Approaches to Monitoring
A Hierarchical Approach to Monitoring at Various Scales
An Approach for Monitoring Rare Plants
Land Condition Trend Analysis
Integrated Measures of Ecosystem Health

6. MANAGING INTO THE FUTURE
6.1 LEARNING FROM MANAGEMENT EXPERIMENTS

6.1.1 Types of Learning
6.1.2 Revisiting Assumptions and Refining Management Approaches
6.1.3 Changing Organizations and Processes
Developing a Shared Vision
Building and Sustaining Teams
6.2 ANTICIPATING CHANGING CONDITIONS AND NEW
DEVELOPMENTS
6.2.1 The Range of Changing Conditions that Can Affect Your Strategy
Military Mission Context
Ecological Context
Socio-Economic Context
Institutional Context
6.2.2 Anticipating Important Changes and Events
6.3 MAINTAINING ACCOUNTABILITY: MEASURING SUCCESS,
REPORTING, AND SHARING INFORMATION
6.3.1 The Importance of Metrics
A Hierarchy of Metrics
6.3.2 Effective Reporting
6.3.3 Sharing Information: Using Networks
6.4 SOME FINAL THOUGHTS

7. A CONSERVATION BIOLOGY PRIMER
7.1 AN OVERVIEW OF LEVELS OF BIODIVERSITY AND THE

HIERARCHICAL NATURE OF NATURE
7.1.1 Genes
7.1.2 Populations and Species
7.1.3 Communities and Ecosystems
7.1.4 Landscapes
7.2 POPULATION-LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS
7.2.1 Rarity
7.2.2 Genetics and Small Populations
7.2.3 Metapopulations and Source-Sink Dynamics
7.2.4 Population Viability Analysis
7.3 COMMUNITY-LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS
7.3.1 Community Structure
7.3.2 Succession and Dynamics
7.3.3 Species Interactions
7.3.4 Keystone Species
7.3.5 Mutualistic Relationships
7.3.6 Introduction of Non-Native Species
7.4 LANDSCAPE-LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS
7.4.1 Size
7.4.2 Edges
7.4.3 Heterogeneity and Dynamics
7.4.4 Context
7.4.5 Connectivity

8. COMPENDIUM OF CONSERVATION TOOLS
8.1 BIOLOGICAL INVENTORY/MONITORING
8.2 FIRE MANAGEMENT
8.3 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
8.4 EDUCATION AND RECREATION

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A. SELECTED LEGAL REQUIREMENTS THAT PERTAIN TO

BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
APPENDIX B. DISTRIBUTION OF MILITARY AND OTHER FEDERAL
LANDS BY ECOREGIONAL SECTION
APPENDIX C. SELECTED POLICY GUIDANCE
APPENDIX D. DIRECTORY OF NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM OFFICES
APPENDIX E. SELECTED COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS AND
MEMORANDUMS OF UNDERSTANDING
APPENDIX F. TNC LIST OF GLOBALLY RARE PLANT COMMUNITIES IN
THE UNITED STATES

List of Boxes

BOX 1.1 Some Definitions of Biodiversity
BOX 1.2 Four Levels of Biodiversity
BOX 2.1 Environmental Awareness within the U.S. Army
BOX 2.2 An Ecosystem Management Perspective from a Federal Natural Resource

Agency
BOX 2.3 Some Definitions of Ecosystem Management
BOX 2.4 The Applegate Partnership, Oregon
BOX 3.1 When Do You Need a Facilitator?
BOX 3.2 A Model Partnership Program: The Dod Partners in Flight Initiative
BOX 3.3 A View of the Importance of Intact Ecosystems for Military Training
BOX 3.4. Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM)
BOX 3.5 Assessing the Impacts of Regional Development on Camp Pendleton Marine
Corps Base
BOX 3.6 Hypothetical Natural Resources Management Mission Statement
BOX 3.7 Starting an Ecosystem Management Process at Arnold Engineering
Development Center in Tennessee
BOX 3.8 The Value of Input by Natural Resources Managers
BOX 4.1 Federal Listing of Species Under the Endangered Species Act
BOX 4.2 An Example of the Inventory Process, Camp Grayling, Michigan
BOX 4.3 Priorities for U.S. Plant and Animal Species
BOX 4.4 Prioritizing Endangered Ecosystems in the United States
BOX 4.5 Why Model?
BOX 4.6 A Suggested Process for Developing Simple Ecological Models
BOX 4.7 Sample Checklist of Stressors (a) and Sources of Stress (b)
BOX 4.8 A Practical Definition of Ecological Integrity: Desired Ecosystem Conditions
in Sandhill Ecosystems at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida
BOX 4.9 Natural Resources Management Goals Developed for Eglin Air Force Base,
Florida
BOX 4.10 Specific Natural Resources Management Goals Developed for Point
Loma, California
BOX 4.11 Ecological Goals for North Landing River Preserve, Virginia
BOX 5.1 The Role of Science in Management at Eglin Air Force Base
BOX 5.2 The Hillborn Plan: A Win-Win Solution to a Difficult Management Problem
BOX 5.3 Example of the Process of Identifying Strategies to Address Obstacles to
Meeting Objectives
BOX 5.4 Research Natural Area (RNA) Designation-Fort Lewis, Washington
BOX 5.5 Projects: Putting Planning into Action
BOX 5.6 Using Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) as a Monitoring Tool at
YUMA Proving Ground, Arizona
BOX 5.7 The Index of Biotic Integrity: A Tool for Monitoring Ecosystem Health
BOX 6.1 The Defense Environmental Network and Information Exchange
BOX 7.1 Biological Richness at the Landscape Level: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma
Richness
BOX 7.2 Genetically Effective Population Size

List of Figures

Figure 1.1 Projected rates of species decline. The blackened region encompasses

various estimates of species losses
Figure 1.2 U.S. species at risk of extinction
Figure 1.3 Growth of Federal laws that protect species and natural habitats
Figure 1.4 DoD lands have a disproportionate number of federally listed species
Figure 1.5 Distribution of Federal lands.
Figure 1.6 Ecoregions of the United States
Figure 2.1 A model of human ethical concern.
Figure 2.2 Basis of an ecosystem approach.
Figure 2.3 Ecosystem management as an expansion of traditional management views of
space, time and inclusion. Ecosystem management expands all three dimensions.
Figure 3.1 An overview of the model process. The particular steps addressed in a
chapter are shaded.
Figure 3.2 Steps in a formal partnering process
Figure 4.1 Example of a complete species record from the TNC global ranking
system.
Figure 4.2 proportion of U.S. species at risk by plant and animal group
Figure 4.3 Model of oak scrub, sand pine, and dry flatwoods dynamics
Figure 4.4 Model of sandhill conditions and ecological trajectories
Figure 4.5 Estimated global human population size from the last ice age to the present.
Figure 4.6 Hypothetical situation map: fire suppression.
Figure 4.7 Hypothetical situation map: forestry operations.
Figure 6.1 Single-loop and double-loop learning
Figure 6.2 Scale of impact of changing conditions and new developments on
biodiversity management
Figure 6.3 A hierarchy of measures of merit for ecosystem-based biodiversity
management.
Figure 7.1 Biodiversity as nested spatial scales and levels of biological hierarchy.
Figure 7.2 Three primary attributes of ecosystems
Figure 7.3 Total genetic diversity of a species (Ht) may be partitioned into within- and
among- population components
Figure 7.4 Risk per year of extinction
Figure 7.5 Average percentage of genetic variance remaining over 10 generations
Figure 7.6 A schematic example of a metapopulation structure.
Figure 7.7 A Schematic example of a metapopulation structure affected by source and
sink patches
Figure 7.8 Relative frequencies of 29 fish species sampled in small streams of South
Carolina
Figure 7.9 Examples of a simple (a) and complex (b) food web in natural communities
Figure 7.10 A schematic diagram of the species-area relationship
Figure 7.11 Naturally caused extinctions that occurred after reserve establishment as a
function of park area in 14 western North American national parks
Figure 7.12 Functional phases of ecosystem development and the flow of events
between them

List of Tables

Table 1.1 Distribution of Military and Other Federal Lands by Ecoregional Province

Table 3.1 Comparison of Traditional Natural Resources Management and Ecosystem

Management
Table 3.2 Summary of Sources of Information for Human Community Inventory,
Analysis, and Synthesis

Table 4.1 Practical and Biologically Based Reasons Behind a Focus on Species and
Ecological Communities as the Units for Prioritization Schemes for Conservation
Table 4.2 Detecting Rare Species.
Table 4.3 Typical Ranking Assignments for Plant Communities Based on Global
Acreage and Global Occurrences
Table 4.4 Major Domestic Base Closures (a) and Major Domestic Base Realignments
(b)
Table 4.5 Example of a Stresses and Sources Matrix for TNC'S Altamaha River
Bioreserve
Table 4.6 Examples of Approaches for Ranking Threats.
Table 4.7 Example of a Management Priority (Longleaf Pine)
Table 4.8 An Example of Determining Management Targets, Management Thresholds,
and Ecological Thresholds for an Important Indicator of Sandhill Forest Health,
Canopy Cover, on Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

Table 5.1 Indicator Variables and Selected Tools and Techniques for Inventorying,

Monitoring, and Assessing Terrestrial Biodiversity at Four Levels of
Organization

Table 6.1 Summary of Six Models of Learning
Table 6.2 When Teams Start to Fail

Table 7.1 Seven Forms of Species Rarity, Based on Three Distributional Traits
Table 7.2 Classes of Possible Keystone and Mutualistic Interactions, and the Potential

Results of their Losses